The common basic feature of shuttleless looms is to separate the weft package from the shuttle, or carry only a small amount of weft, and replace the large and heavy shuttle with a small and light weft insertion device, which provides favorable conditions for high-speed weft insertion. In the supply of weft, the package is directly used and enters the weft insertion mechanism through the weft storage device, so that the loom can get rid of frequent weft filling action.
The adoption of shuttleless loom is of great significance for increasing fabric varieties, adjusting fabric structure, reducing fabric defects, improving fabric quality, reducing noise and improving working conditions. Shuttleless weaving locomotives have high speed and are usually 4-8 times more efficient than shuttleless looms. Therefore, the popularization and application of shuttleless looms in a large area can greatly improve labor productivity.
Due to the increasingly perfect structure of shuttleless loom, the wide range of materials selected, and the higher and higher machining accuracy, coupled with the development of science and technology in the world, and the gradual replacement of mechanical technology by electronic technology and microelectronic control technology, the manufacturing of shuttleless loom is a combination of metallurgy, machinery, electronics, chemical industry, fluid power and other disciplines, integrating electronic technology, computer technology It is a high-tech product integrating precision machinery technology and textile technology.
The air-jet loom detects the total warp tension through the tension sensor, and the CPU controls the change of warp tension caused by the change of opening, warp loosening, let off and the winding diameter of warp shaft, so as to ensure the let off accuracy and keep the warp constant tension. Because the air-jet loom adopts microcomputer technology and other electronic technologies to control the movement of the whole machine, especially the automatic monitoring of product quality, the production efficiency of air-jet loom is greatly improved. At the same time, the requirements of air-jet loom for electronic control system are becoming higher and higher. It should not only have high performance, good stability, convenient maintenance and low failure rate, but also be able to adapt to the environment of high temperature, high humidity, hairiness and dust. It also has strong anti-interference requirements for power supply fluctuation, group machine interference and so on.
The development of weaving machinery products presents the following characteristics:
Computer control technology and electronic jacquard technology have been widely used in all kinds of knitting machinery products, including circular weft knitting machine, flat knitting machine, hosiery machine, artificial fur machine and warp knitting warping machine, filling the gap in this field in China for many years, realizing electronic jacquard and improving the technical level of the machine, Some models have reached the international advanced level in the 1990s. China’s computer control system for circular weft knitting machine, hosiery machine and flat knitting machine has been adopted in batch for the host machine.
The supplement of product variety and specification series has been relatively complete and developed to both ends. For example, the maximum cylinder diameter of circular weft knitting machine can reach 38 and 40 inches, the machine number can reach E36, the width of warp knitting machine can reach 180 inches, the machine number can reach E32, and the maximum specification of computerized flat knitting machine can reach 60 inches, and the machine number can reach E18.
The versatility and versatility of the machine are enhanced. For example, in the single-sided circular weft machine, the four needle track, Terry and weft lining single-sided machine can be converted to each other, and one machine can be used for multiple purposes; Within a certain range, needle cylinders of different specifications of the same machine can be exchanged with each other to realize the use of one machine with multiple specifications; Mechanical jacquard and electronic jacquard machines can be converted and so on.
Traditionally, looms using yarn for weaving can be divided into two categories: weaving and knitting. Weaving machines include original shuttle looms and new shuttleless looms. Shuttleless looms mainly include rapier looms, air-jet looms, water-jet looms and projectile looms. Knitting machines are divided into warp knitting and weft knitting, under which there are many small categories.
In the knitting category, the product development of China’s weaving machinery is uneven, including circular weft knitting machine and warp knitting machine, flat knitting machine and hosiery machine, and crochet machine. The basic products widely used in domestic circular weft machines are relatively complete, including single-sided and double-sided circular weft machines, rib machines and artificial fur machines. The single-sided circular weft machine has four needle tracks, Terry (positive and reverse wrapping), weft lining, multi-functional single-sided machine, etc.
The cylinder diameter is developed from the commonly used 30 inches to the maximum of 38 ~ 40 inches, and the machine number is also developed from E28 with fine needle pitch to E32 ~ E36; The double-sided circular weft knitting machine includes cotton wool machine, upper two lower four section double-sided machine, jacquard double-sided machine, etc; Rib rapier loom
Machine has its own series, cotton machine and rib machine can realize mutual conversion; Electronic jacquard circular weft knitting machine has made a breakthrough and filled the gap in China; There are two types of artificial fur machines: top feeding type and loop cutting type. Computer jacquard artificial fur machines have been produced and supplied in batch.
According to the weft insertion method of weaving, woven fabrics can be divided into shuttle looms and shuttleless looms. Shuttle loom is a loom with traditional shuttle (wood shuttle or plastic shuttle) weft insertion. The shuttle has a large volume and heavy weight, which is repeatedly projected back and forth. The machine has large vibration, high noise, slow speed and low efficiency. There are many ways of weft insertion in shuttleless looms, including rapier, jet (air jet, water jet), sheet shuttle, multi shed (multiphase) and weaving.
Rapier looms use rigid or flexible rapier heads and belts to clamp and guide weft. In addition to being suitable for weaving plain and textured fabrics, rapier loom is characterized by convenient color change, suitable for multi-color weft fabrics, and suitable for the production of yarn dyed fabrics, double-layer velvet fabrics, terry fabrics and decorative fabrics.
The air-jet loom uses the compressed air jet to pull the weft and bring the weft through the shed. The air-jet loom is characterized by fast speed and high labor productivity. It is suitable for the production of plain and textured fabrics, fine, extra high-density fabrics and mass fabrics.
Water jet loom
Water jet loom uses water as weft insertion medium to produce friction traction force on weft yarn by jet water, so that weft yarn on fixed bobbin is introduced into shed. Water jet loom has the characteristics of high speed and high unit output. It is mainly suitable for the production of hydrophobic filament chemical fiber fabrics with smooth surface.
The wafer shuttle loom uses a small wafer shuttle with a clip to hold the weft and project the weft insertion. The projectile loom has the advantages of stable weft insertion, excellent fabric quality and less weft return. It is suitable for the production of multi-color weft fabrics, fine, thick and wide fabrics.
- Opening mechanism/shedding: according to the fabric structure, the warp yarn is separated up and down to form a shed for weft insertion.
- Weft insertion mechanism: the weft yarn is introduced into the shed.
- Beating up mechanism: push the weft yarn introduced into the shed to the fabric mouth to form a fabric.
- Coiling mechanism: guide the woven fabric away from the fabric forming area and roll it into a certain roll.
- Let off mechanism: supply warp yarn according to the needs of weaving, and make the warp yarn have a certain tension.
- Frame, starting, braking and transmission mechanism.
- Protective device: prevent weaving defects and operate safely.
- Automatic weft filling device: after weft is used up, it will automatically fill weft.
- Multi color weft supply device: alternately supply different weft yarns for interleaving without stopping.
Through the introduction of foreign advanced technology and independent development, in addition to the ordinary type, the loom has a high-speed type, with a maximum machine speed of 2000 rpm, P (Terry) device, e (elastic wire) device or EP device for users to choose, and a double-sided terry warp knitting machine. Raschel warp knitting machine has many products, such as multi comb bar, jacquard, double needle bed, mesh warp knitting machine, etc. the double needle bed Raschel warp knitting machine has long Plush type (can weave 16 ~ 30mm double-layer fabric) and short plush type (can weave 4 ~ 25mm double-layer fabric), and the machine width can reach 110 ~ 1.